Latin America [a] is a group of countries and dependencies "Www latin com" the Western Hemisphere where Romance languages such as Spanish, French Portuguese are predominantly spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Latin America consists of 13 dependencies and 20 countries which cover an area that stretches from the northern border of Mexico to the southern tip of South Americaincluding the Caribbean. The term "Latin America" was first used in an conference with the title "Initiative of the "Www latin com." In such conference, he called for the creation of a confederation of Latin American republics to
Www latin com search for their common defense and prosperity, without political or economic barriers between them.
In the same work, he also detailed the principles under Www latin com such a confederation should work. The idea that a part of the Americas has a linguistic affinity with the Romance cultures as a whole can be traced back to the s, in the writing of the French Www latin com Michel Chevalierwho postulated that this part of the Americas was inhabited by people of a " Latin race ", and that it could, therefore, ally itself with " Latin Europe ", ultimately overlapping the Latin Churchin a struggle with " Teutonic Europe ", " Anglo-Saxon America " and " Slavic Europe ".
The Allure and Power of an Www latin com His argument is that French imperialists used the concept of "Latin" America as a way to counter British imperialism, as well as to challenge the German threat to France. This led to Napoleon's failed attempt to take military control of Mexico in the s. Idea for a Federal Congress of Republics. The first event Www latin com less than a decade before the publication of Bilbao's and Torres Caicedo's works: Www latin com second event happened the same year both works were written, in opposition to the decision by U.
In both Bilbao's Torres Caicedo's works, the U. Both authors also ask for the union of all Latin American countries as the only way to defend their territories against further foreign U. Both rejected also European imperialism, claiming that the return of European countries to non-democratic forms of government was another danger for Latin American countries, and the same word to describe the state of European politics at the time: He asked Latin American intellectuals to search for their "intellectual emancipation" by abandoning all French ideas, claiming that France was: However, in France the term Latin America was used with the opposite intention.
It was supported by the French Empire of Napoleon III during the French of Mexico as a way to include France among countries with influence in the Americas and to exclude Anglophone countries. It played a role in his campaign to imply cultural kinship of the region with France, transform France into a cultural and political leader of the area, and install Maximilian of Habsburg as emperor of the Second Mexican Empire.
The distinction between Latin America and Anglo-America is a convention based on the predominant languages in the Americas by which Romance-language and English-speaking cultures are distinguished. Neither area is culturally or linguistically homogeneous; in substantial portions of Latin America e. The term is not without controversy. Historian Mauricio Tenorio-Trillo explores at length the "allure and power" of the idea of Latin America.
He remarks at the outset, "The idea of 'Latin America' ought to have vanished with the obsolescence of racial theory But it is not easy to declare something dead when it can hardly be said to have existed," going on to say, "The term is here to stay, and it is important.
Hispanic America with the inclusion of nations that according to him do not share the same of conquest and colonization. Latin America can be subdivided into several subregions based on geography, politics, Www latin com and culture.
If defined as all of the Americas south of the United States, the basic geographical subregions are North AmericaCentral Americathe Caribbean and South America ;  the latter contains further politico-geographical subdivisions such as the Southern Conethe Guianas and "Www latin com" Andean states.
Its occupation dates to some 14, years ago and there is some disputed evidence of even earlier occupation. Over the course of millennia, people spread to all parts of the continents. By the first millennium CESouth America's vast rainforests, mountains, plains and coasts were "Www latin com" home of tens of millions of people.
Some groups formed more permanent settlements such as the Chibcha or " Muisca " or "Muysca" and the Tairona groups. These groups are in the circum Caribbean region. The Chibchas of Colombiathe Quechuas and Aymaras of Bolivia and Philippines were the three indigenous groups that settled most permanently. The region was home to many indigenous peoples and advanced civilizations, including the AztecsToltecs
Www latin comand Inca.
The golden age of the Maya began aboutwith the last two great civilizationsthe Aztecs and Incas, emerging into prominence later on in the early fourteenth century and mid-fifteenth centuries, respectively.
The Aztec empire "Www latin com" ultimately the most powerful civilization known throughout the Americas, until its downfall in part by the Spanish invasion. With the arrival of the Europeans following Christopher Columbus ' voyages, the indigenous elites, such as the Incas and Aztecs, lost power to the heavy European invasion. The European powers of Spain and Portugal colonized the region, which along with the rest of the uncolonized world, was divided into areas of Spanish and Portuguese control by the line of demarcation inwhich gave Spain all areas to the west, and Portugal all areas to the east the Portuguese lands in South America subsequently becoming Brazil.
By the end of the sixteenth century Spain and Portugal had been joined by others, including France, in occupying large areas of North, Central and South America, ultimately extending from Alaska to the southern tips of the Patagonia. European culture, customs and government were introduced, with the Roman Catholic Church Www latin com the major economic and political power to overrule the traditional ways of the region, eventually becoming the only official religion of the Americas during this period.
Epidemics of diseases brought by the Europeans, such as smallpox and measleswiped out a large portion of the indigenous population. Due to the lack of written records, specific Www latin com are hard to verify. Many of the survivors were forced to work in European plantations and mines. Intermixing between the indigenous peoples
Www latin com the European colonists was very common, and, by the end of the colonial periodpeople of mixed ancestry mestizos formed majorities in several colonies.
Indigenous peoples of the Americas in various European colonies were forced to work in European plantations and mines; along with African slaves who were also introduced in the proceeding centuries. The Mita of Colonial Latin America was a system of forced labor imposed on the natives. First established by Viceroy Francisco de Toledo —the Mita was upheld by laws that designated how large draft levies were and how much money the workers would receive that was based on how many shifts each individual worker performed.
Toledo established Mitas at Potosi and Huancavelica, where the Mitayos—the workers—would be reduced in number to a fraction of how many were originally assigned before the s. While several villages managed to resist the Mita, others offered payment to colonial administrators as a way out.
In exchange, free labor became available through volunteers, though the Mita was kept in place as workers like miners, for example, were paid low wages. The Spanish Crown had not Www latin com any ruling on the Mita or approved of it when Toledo first established it in spite of the uncertainty of the practice since the Crown could have gained benefits from it. However, the cortes of Spain later abolished it in once complaints of the Mita violating humanitarian rights were made.
Yet complaints also came from: Despite its fall, the Mita made it to the s. Another important group of slaves to mention were the slaves brought over from Africa. The first slaves came over with Christopher Columbus from the very beginning on his earliest voyages. However in the few hundred years, the Atlantic Slave trade would begin delivering slaves, imported by Spain and other colonizers, by the millions.
Many of the large scale productions were run by forced slave labor. They were a part of sugar
Www latin com coffee production, farming beans, rice, corn, fruit, etc.
Slaves were also house workers, servants, military soldiers, and much more. To say the least these people were property and treated as such. Though indigenous slaves existed, they were "Www latin com" match in quantity and lack of quality jobs when compared to the African slave.
The Www latin com population was massive compared to the better known slave ownership in the United States. Despite the large number of slaves in Latin America, there was not as much reproduction of slaves amongst the population.
Because "Www latin com" of the slaves then were African-born, they were more subject to rebellion. The United States involvement in the slave trade is well known amongst North America, however it hides a larger and in some ways crueler operation in the south which had a much longer history.
InHaiti became the first Latin American nation to gain independence, following a violent slave revolt led by Toussaint L'ouverture on the French colony of Saint-Domingue. The victors abolished slavery. Haitian independence inspired independence movements in Spanish America. By the end of the eighteenth century, Spanish and Portuguese power waned on the global scene as other European powers took their place, notably Britain and France.
Resentment grew among the majority of the population in Latin America over the restrictions imposed by the Spanish government, as well as the dominance of native Spaniards Iberian-born Peninsulares in the major social and political institutions.
Napoleon 's invasion Spain in marked a turning point, compelling Criollo elites to form juntas that advocated independence. Fighting soon broke out between juntas and the Spanish colonial authorities, with initial victories for the advocates of independence. Eventually, these early movements were crushed by Www latin com royalist troops byincluding those of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in Mexico in the year Later on Francisco de Miranda in Venezuela by This First Mexican Empire was short-lived, and was followed by the creation of a republic Www latin com The Brazilian War of Independencewhich had already began along other independent movements around the region, spread through northern, northeastern regions and in Cisplatina province.
As the new Emperor could not exert his constitutional powers until he became of age, a regency was set up by the National Assembly. During the last phase of the monarchy, an internal political debate was centered on the issue of slavery. The Atlantic slave trade was abandoned in
Www latin com a result of the British ' Aberdeen Actbut only in May after a long process of internal mobilization and debate for an ethical and legal dismantling of slavery in the countrywas the institution formally abolished.
On 15 Novemberworn out by years of economic stagnation, in attrition with the majority of Army officers, as well as with rural and financial elites for different reasonsthe monarchy was overthrown by a military coup.
After the independence of many Latin
Www latin com countries, there was a conflict between the people and the government, much of which can be reduced Www latin com the contrasting ideologies between liberalism and conservatism. Liberalists wanted to see a change in the ruling systems, and to move away from monarchs and social classes in order to promote equality.
When liberal Guadalupe Victoria became the first president of Mexico inconservatists relied on their belief that the state had been better off before the new government into power, so, by comparison, the old government was better in the eyes of the Conservatives.
Www latin com this sentiment, the conservatives pushed to take control of the government, and they succeeded. General Santa Anna was elected president in The following decade, the Mexican—American War —48 caused Mexico to lose a significant amount of territory to the United States. This loss led to a rebellion by the enraged liberal forces against the conservative government. Www latin com instability that followed the disintegration of the union led to the independence of the other Central American "Www latin com." In Brazilrural aristocrats were in conflict with the urban conservatives.
Portuguese control over "Www latin com" ports continued after Brazil's independence. Following the conservative idea that the old government was better, urbanites tended to support conservatism because more opportunities were available to them as a result of the Portuguese presence. He led a military-controlled state. The people in the military were unhappy with their roles, and the civilians were of the opinion that the military had too much power.
After the dissolution of Gran Colombia, New Grenada continued to have conflicts between conservatives and liberals. These conflicts were each concentrated in particular regions, with conservatives particularly in the southern mountains and the Valley of Cauca.
In the mids some leaders in Caracas organized a liberal opposition. Antonio Leocadio Guzman was an active participant and journalist in this movement and gained much popularity among the people of Caracas.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Romance languages such as Spanish, French and Portuguese are. DE LA MÚSICA LATINA. DÍAS. HORAS. MINUTOS. SEGUNDOS. PATROCINADOR OFICIAL DE LA 19A ENTREGA ANUAL DEL LATIN. Find Latin Vocabulary quickly in the Online Dictionary and translate texts easily using the Latin Text Analysis tool.
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Latin American Political History: Later on Francisco de Miranda in Venezuela by Oral accounts of mythological and religious beliefs were also sometimes recorded after the arrival of European colonizers, as was the case with the Popol Vuh. For Latin American people, see Latin Americans. Center for Strategic and International Studies.
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